Bangladesh is located in South Asia, bordered by India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. It occupies the fertile delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world.



Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate, with three distinct seasons: a hot and humid summer, a monsoon season with heavy rainfall, and a cool and dry winter. Temperatures typically range from 25°C to 35°C (77°F to 95°F) in the summer and drop to around 10°C to 20°C (50°F to 68°F) in the winter.


Bangladesh is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including the Royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, Gangetic dolphin, and numerous species of birds, reptiles, and fish. The Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a critical habitat for many endangered species.

Longest Rivers

The Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers converge in Bangladesh, forming one of the largest river deltas in the world. The combined network of rivers and tributaries forms an intricate system that sustains the country’s agriculture and biodiversity.

Highest Mountains

Bangladesh is relatively flat, with most of its terrain consisting of low-lying plains and river deltas. The highest peak in Bangladesh is Keokradong, located in the southeastern Chittagong Hill Tracts, with an elevation of 1,230 meters (4,035 feet) above sea level.



The history of Bangladesh dates back to ancient times, with evidence of human habitation found in archaeological sites such as Mahasthangarh and Wari-Bateshwar. These sites provide insight into the early civilizations that thrived in the region, including the Maurya and Gupta empires.

Ancient Period

Bangladesh was part of the ancient empires of the Mauryas, Guptas, and Pala-Sena dynasties, which ruled over the Indian subcontinent. The region was known for its prosperity and cultural achievements, with notable contributions in literature, art, and architecture.

Medieval Period

During the medieval period, Bangladesh came under the influence of various Islamic empires, including the Delhi Sultanate and the Bengal Sultanate. The region experienced a golden age of Islamic civilization, with the establishment of vibrant trade networks and the spread of Sufi mysticism.

Colonial Rule

Bangladesh fell under European colonial rule in the 16th century, first under the Portuguese and later the British East India Company. The British established Bengal Presidency, which became the center of their colonial administration in the Indian subcontinent. Bangladesh played a significant role in the struggle for Indian independence, culminating in the partition of British India in 1947 and the creation of Pakistan.

Independence and Modern Age

Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan in 1971 after a nine-month-long war of liberation, which resulted in the loss of millions of lives. The country emerged as a sovereign nation with a parliamentary democracy and a commitment to secularism and social justice. Since independence, Bangladesh has made significant strides in economic development, poverty reduction, and social progress.


Bangladesh has a population of over 165 million people, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The majority of the population is Bengali, with ethnic minorities such as the Chakma, Rohingya, and Santal also present. Bengali is the official language, and Islam is the predominant religion, practiced by the vast majority of the population.

Administrative Divisions

Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, each with its own local government authority:

Administrative Divisions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. Dhaka Division – Population: 69.9 million
  2. Chittagong Division – Population: 34.5 million
  3. Rajshahi Division – Population: 36.1 million
  4. Khulna Division – Population: 31.5 million
  5. Barisal Division – Population: 21.3 million
  6. Sylhet Division – Population: 12.5 million
  7. Rangpur Division – Population: 23.4 million
  8. Mymensingh Division – Population: 17.8 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Dhaka
  2. Chittagong
  3. Khulna
  4. Rajshahi
  5. Sylhet
  6. Barisal
  7. Rangpur
  8. Narayanganj
  9. Gazipur
  10. Mymensingh

Education Systems

Education in Bangladesh is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 10, with a strong emphasis on universal primary education. The government operates a system of public schools, supplemented by private and madrasa (Islamic) schools. Bangladesh is home to several top universities, including the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU).



Bangladesh has several international airports, including Shahjalal International Airport in Dhaka, Shah Amanat International Airport in Chittagong, and Osmani International Airport in Sylhet. These airports serve as major hubs for domestic and international flights.


Bangladesh has an extensive railway network operated by the Bangladesh Railway, connecting major cities and towns across the country. The total length of Bangladesh’s railway tracks exceeds 2,855 kilometers.


Bangladesh has a well-developed network of highways, including the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway, Dhaka-Sylhet Highway, and Dhaka-Rajshahi Highway, which connect major cities and regions. The total length of Bangladesh’s highways exceeds 21,000 kilometers.


Bangladesh has several major ports, including the Port of Chittagong, the Port of Mongla, and the Port of Narayanganj, which handle the majority of the country’s maritime trade. The Port of Chittagong is the largest seaport in Bangladesh and plays a vital role in the country’s economy.

Country Facts

  • Population: Over 165 million
  • Capital: Dhaka
  • Language: Bengali (Bangla)
  • Religion: Islam
  • Race: Bengali, ethnic minorities
  • Currency: Bangladeshi taka (BDT)
  • ISO Country Code: BD
  • International Calling Code: +880
  • Top-level Domain: .bd