Early period until the 18th century
Findings from the highlands of Ecuador date to around
10,000 years before the beginning of the Christian era.
The ceramic finds from the Valdivia phase (3200 to 1800
BC) form some of the oldest evidence of South America.
After 1800 BC The first permanent permanent settlements
formed, which were connected with the beginning of field
construction. In the post-Christian period, regional
cultures only developed, which from 500 AD. came into an
integration phase, which was influenced by the influence
of the Incas in the middle of the 15th century. The
Incas had founded an empire under Manco Capac in Peru
around 1200 and developed into an important figure in
the north of the South American continent in the
following three centuries.
In the 1960s, the Incas incorporated the southern
highlands of Loja and Cuenca into their empire. At the
end of the 15th century, the entire interior and parts
of the coastal region followed. Shortly before the
arrival of European seafarers, the Inca Empire had an
area of around two million square kilometers - that is
five times the area of Germany today. From 1531 the
Spaniards conquered the Inca empire and thus subjugated
Ecuador, which was added to the Viceroyalty of Peru in
1563 as Audiencia with Quito as the capital. The
beginnings of Spanish colonization were characterized by
forced Christianization, forced labor and enslavement.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the Audiencia
Quito - as the area of today's Ecuador was called by
the Spaniards - came to the Viceroyalty of Neugranada,
The desire for independence increased from the
beginning of the 19th century, with the revolution in
1809 the fight for independence against Spain and its
representatives began. It ended with General Sucres'
victory at Pichincha in 1822. After a few years of
belonging to Greater Colombia, Ecuador took over in
1830. An unstable period of coups, internal unrest and
territorial disputes began, which led to the loss of a
large part of the Amazonian territory. Domestic
conflicts arose from the different objectives of the
liberals (merchants in the coastal region) on the one
hand and the conservatives (large landowners of the
highlands) on the other.
Also in the 19th century, the Ecuadorians took
possession of the Gal¨¢pagos Islands - the archipelago
was discovered by the Spaniards in 1535, Charles Darwins
stayed there in 1835.
Under President Eloy Alfaro, religious freedom was
enforced at the turn of the 20th century and the
separation of church and state was accomplished.
According to AbbreviationFinder,
lines emerged and in the early 20th century the
expansion of the road network began under General Plaza.
There followed a phase of political instability, which
was not resolved by the election of Jos¨¦ Mar¨ªa Velasco
Ibarra as head of state in 1934 - he was overthrown five
times until 1972, but came to power four times (1935,
1947, 1956 and 1961) - but did so an economic upswing
and social improvements have been implemented. The
charismatic leader had a political influence on Ecuador
for forty years. During his reign, the protocol of Rio
de Janeiro, by which the country lost almost half of its
territory to Peru,
After the (fifth) coup in 1972 against Velasco ruled
a military government, which was replaced in 1976 by a
junta of the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Large parts of the oil industry were nationalized, but
this did not change the country's economic situation.
After a referendum in 1979, a new liberal constitution
was enacted and the country was one of the first
countries in Latin America to begin to democratize. In
new elections, Jaime Rold¨®s Aguilera came to power from
the People's Party CFP (Concentraci¨®n de Fuerzas
Populares), under whose government government debt and
inflation rose sharply. His successor was the Christian
Democrat Le¨®n Febres Cordero in 1984, who also failed to
solve social and economic problems. He was followed in
1988 by the social democratic R. Borja Cevallos and in
1992 by the neoliberal S. Dur¨¢n Ball¨¦n. Whilst the
government was unable to meet the expectations placed on
it, an agricultural reform brought about a
redistribution of land that opened new perspectives,
especially for the Indians living in the Amazon region.
In 1995 there were again border disputes with Peru,
involving a region that was claimed by both sides and in
which oil sources were suspected. After the state of
emergency had already been declared in Ecuador, a war
could still be prevented through the mediation of the
UN. In 1996, AJ Bucaram Ortiz surprisingly came to power
and started negotiations with the former enemy of the
war, Peru. However, he was deposed again in 1997 after a
general strike and large demonstrations led to
corruption and nepotism. The army intervened again for
the first time after 1972 and with its help Vice
President Rosalia Arteaga became interim president.
However, after a few months in elections, she was
defeated by the former President of Parliament, F.
Alarc¨®n, who became the new President.
After another large-scale demonstration by Indian
populations demanding the resignation of President
Mahuad Witt, a three-member junta took over in a
bloodless coup in early 2000, the previous Vice
President Dr. Gustavo Noboa Bejarano, a respected
politician, was proclaimed the new head of state. Under
his presidency, the IMF (International Monetary Fund),
along with the World Bank and the Inter-American
Development Bank, approved new large-scale loans to
boost the economy; the economic situation improved.
Following renewed demonstrations by Native Americans in
the capital city of Quito in February 2001, Antonio
Varga, President and Native Leader, agreed to end the
conflict and withdraw price increases. In November 2002,
Lucio Gutierrez was elected new head of state. At the
height of a wave of protests over corruption and
violation of the rule of law, he was removed from office
in April 2005. The previous Vice President Dr. Sworn in
Alfredo Palacio. In January 2007, President Rafael
Correa took office. The main points of his government
program are a stronger role of the state in the economy
(realignment of the oil sector under state control) and
the intensification of social programs. The National
Congress has been replaced by a constituent assembly to
draft a new constitution. This constitution, which came
into force on October 20, 2008, significantly
strengthens the role of the President. Correa was
confirmed in office in 2009 and 2013.
In 2008, Ecuador founded the Union of South American
Nations (Unasur) along with the other eleven independent
states of South America, modeled on the European Union.
The relationship with Colombia is, however, burdened by
the internal conflict there: Ecuadorian territory is
repeatedly violated by Colombian troops in the context
of cocaine extermination campaigns or in the persecution
of FARC rebels.