The area of today’s Montenegro was part of the Roman Empire (Illyricum) and was incorporated into the Eastern Roman Empire under Justinian I after the migration in 535. The Romanized Illyrians were partially displaced by South Slavic tribes in the 6th century. From the 8th century onwards, smaller kingdoms formed that resisted the Byzantine influence. After the Byzantine defeat against the Turks at the Battle of Myriokephalon, the Serbian kingdom of Duklja (Dioclitia) was established in what is now Montenegro, which was later replaced by the Principality of Zeta (from around 1360).
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The strengthened Ottoman Empire, which had dominated the Balkans since the 15th century, contented itself with the control of the coastal cities of this area. From the end of the 15th century prince bishops ruled as intellectual and political leaders; Parts of the country remained under the formal rule of the Ottoman Empire until 1878.
Only with the resolutions of the Berlin Congress, which was to create a new political order for the Balkans after the Russian-Ottoman was, was the great European powers recognized Montenegro as an independent principality (kingdom from 1910).
During the First World War it was occupied by Austria-Hungary. After the war, the king was deposed and Montenegro became part of the newly founded Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Second World War an Italian puppet state was established. In November 1945, Montenegro became part of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (from 1963 the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia).
After the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Montenegro decided in a referendum to stay with the rest of Yugoslavia (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Only after the Yugoslav wars from 1991 to 1999 did Montenegro strive for independence, but remained under pressure from Serbia and the EU in a loose confederation with Serbia (“Serbia and Montenegro”). This regulation provided for the possibility of a further referendum on an independent Montenegrin state.
On May 21, 2006, the future of Montenegro was voted on again. According to AbbreviationFinder, a majority now voted for independence (55.49%), followed on June 3, 2006 by the declaration of independence.
In the parliamentary elections of September 2006, the alliance “Democratic List for a European Montenegro”, which won the Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS), the Social Democratic Party (SPD), the Democratic Union of Albanians (DUA) and the Croatian Citizens ‘Initiative (HGI) united, with the absolute majority of 41 out of 81 seats. The Serbian bloc (Serbian People’s Party SNS and others) received twelve seats, the alliance of Socialist People’s Party (SNP), People’s Party (NS) and Democratic Serbian Party (DSS) received eleven seats. The Movement for Changes (PZP) also received eleven seats.
A new constitution entered into force in 2007. After Prime Minister Zeljko Sturanovic resigned for health reasons, Parliament elected DPS chairman Miko Djukanović as his successor in late February 2008. President Filip Vujanović (DPS) was confirmed in office in 2008 and 2013. The ” European Montenegro “alliance achieved a clear victory in the early parliamentary elections of March 2009, as well as in the elections in October 2012.
Montenegro is striving to become a member of the European Union. A stabilization and association agreement with the EU was signed in October 2007. EU accession negotiations started in June 2012. Montenegro has been part of the NATO Membership Action Plan since December 2009.