Early history to the Middle Ages
Since about 1200 BC the area of today’s Slovenia was populated by Illyrian tribes. From the 2nd century BC the Romans conquered the area in the 1st century AD. Slovenia belongs to the Roman province of Pannonia. The city of Emona, later Ljubljana, was built by the Romans. After the division of the Roman Empire (395 AD), the area initially belonged to the Western Roman, from the end of the 5th century to the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, the Greek culture and language were dominant. Slavs immigrated to the country in the 6th century. At the end of the 8th century, the troops of Charlemagne (768-814) conquered the area of today’s Slovenia and made it part of the Franconian Empire. Around the year 1000, the first texts written in Slovenian were written in the Freising manuscripts.
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Over the next few centuries, various princely houses dominated, and the influence of the Habsburgs increased from the 13th century. In 1282 the Duchy of Carniola became part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. The German influence gained in importance, an upper class formed, which consisted predominantly of German origin. In contrast, the strata of the peasants were Slovenian-Slavic.
The country was conquered by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805, but after its defeat by the resolutions of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 it again became part of the Habsburg Empire. When the Austrian heir to the throne was murdered by a Bosnian Serb in Sarajevo (the capital of the present state of Bosnia-Herzegovina) in June 1914 and the First World War broke out, the Slovenian region also became a theater of war. With the collapse of the Danube monarchy after the end of the war in 1918, German dominance in the country ended.
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
According to AbbreviationFinder, various solutions for the Balkan areas were discussed before the end of the war. The conflict between Croatians who demanded a state of Yugoslavia and Serbs who were aiming for a great kingdom of Serbia emerged clearly. In July 1917, the parties agreed on the creation of a South Slavic state under the leadership of the Serbian royal family. The resulting different ethnic groups should all have equal rights. Not only different peoples but also different religions and languages collided, creating a great potential for conflict. After the war ended in 1918, the area of what is now Slovenia became part of the “United Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes”.From the Slovenian side, there was some reason to join the kingdom: conflicts with Italy (the western part of Slovenia, Istria, fell to Italy in 1918/1919) and the fear of “Germanization” by Austria caused the country’s leadership to tend towards a Yugoslav state, to preserve your own territorial integrity as best as possible. In fact, the Slovenes in the Greater Serbian state were increasingly losing influence and political importance. The rebellion of the other peoples against the dominance of the Serbs increased when the Croatian opposition leader Stjepan Radic was murdered in 1928 and the Serbian monarch King Alexander I arbitrarily divided the kingdom into nine administrative areas a year later, regardless of ethnic considerations. He named the United Kingdom in ”
During the Second World War, the Slovenian area was divided between Germany, Italy and Hungary. After 1945, partisan general Josip Broz, called Tito, and the Communist Popular Front took power, having received 90% of the vote in November elections. A year later, the “Federative People’s Republic of Yugoslavia” was proclaimed, which had close ties to the Soviet Union but was able to maintain its independence. Slovenia became one of the six republics, in 1947 the country received the areas in Istria lost to Italy in 1918/1919. Under Tito, some Slovenian politicians were found in leading positions in government and administration. Tito’s authoritarian leadership held the multinational state together with its mixture of peoples, religions and languages.After his death in 1980, the fragile unity broke: ethnic conflicts in the Yugoslav Federation increased more and more (Kosovo conflict 1981), and independence movements became stronger in the sub-republics. The conflict escalated when Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia declared independence in 1991. Serbia declared war on Croatia, which in the next few years cost many lives and left many more homeless that took the lives of many people over the next few years and made many more homeless.that took the lives of many people over the next few years and made many more homeless.
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Slovenia was only marginally affected by the war: After the declaration of withdrawal from the Yugoslav Federation in 1990 (88.5% of the population had opted for it in December) and the declaration of independence on June 25, 1991, organizations of Serb-dominated Yugoslav troops were threatened to occupy the country. With the intervention of the European Community and the resistance of the Slovenian vigilantes, the Yugoslav troops withdrew in October of the same year. Slovenia was a free, self-determined country for the first time after centuries of Habsburg rule and decades in the Yugoslav multinational state.
Elections followed, which were initially won by the United Democratic Union alliance (consisting of Christian Democrats, Liberals and Social Democrats, Farmers’ Union and Greens) with a large majority. The goal was to introduce the free market economy, which was made more difficult by the collapse in trade with the other former republics. Industrial production declined rapidly, and foreign exchange income from tourism was lacking. The large number of refugees from the civil war zones of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina put an additional strain on Slovenia’s economy. The economy stabilized again from the mid-1990s. The economic framework was created in 1998 and the country became a candidate for accession to the European Union (EU). Accession negotiations started in the same year. Slovenia joined NATO in March 2004 and joined the EU in May 2004. In May 2004 the country also joined the Schengen Agreement. On January 1, 2007, Slovenia achieved one of the most important economic goals in terms of economic policy: the euro was introduced.