Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Even before the beginning of the Christian era, powerful peoples lived in Mongolia, such as the Huns and Xiongnu. According to new knowledge, the Xiongnu were spread by the expanding Chinese in the 2nd century BC. expelled to Mongolia and in turn displaced the Huns living there. These evaded into southeastern Europe over the following centuries and were there in the 4th century AD. Triggers of migration. On the territory of Mongolia, the reigns of various steppe peoples followed after the empire of the Xiongnu (Xianbi from the 5th century, Uyghurs in the 8th century, Kyrgyz in the 9th century and the Kitans until the 12th century).
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The cornerstone of the Mongol Empire was laid in the 13th century by Genghis Khan (1206-1227), who united the tribes living in Mongolia. In the following decades, he and his successors conquered much of Asia, and thus China and Russia, in large military trains. The expansion into Europe only ended before the walls of Vienna due to the surprising death of Grand Khan Ogedei (1229-1241). Under the grandson of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian empire reached its greatest extent, the coasts of the Adriatic were reached and Central Asian areas as well as Baghdad and Damascus were conquered. China was united and dominated under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty until 1368 and the Islamic Turkish-speaking empire of the “Golden Horde” was founded in Russia, which existed until 1557.
According to AbbreviationFinder, the Lamaist monastery complex Erdeni Dzuu was founded in 1586 and soon numerous monasteries covered the country. The prevailing shamanism was replaced by Lamaism. One of the reasons for this was the influence of the Chinese Manchu emperors from the 17th century on the area of Inner Mongolia further south and on Outer Mongolia, which is now the territory of the Mongolian Republic.
After the conquest of Beijing, the Manchu emperors ruled China and Inner Mongolia as the Qing dynasty until the Chinese revolution in 1911. Today’s territory of Outer Mongolia was the colonial external territory of China. Occasional uprisings in Mongolia were source in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was only when the Manchu emperors lost their power in the context of the Chinese revolution that Mongolia took the opportunity in 1911 to declare independence with Russian support and to establish a Lamaist monarchy.
In 1919, Outer Mongolia was occupied by Chinese troops, which in turn were expelled by Belarusian troops. The Belarusians were subject to the Red Army of the Soviet Union, which entered in 1921. A provisional People’s Government took over and in 1924 designated the territory of Outer Mongolia as the Mongolian People’s Republic, which was the second communist country in the world after the USSR. Around the same time, Inner Mongolia was subjugated by Chinese revolutionary troops and part of Red China. This part has been an autonomous region of the People’s Republic since 1947. The extreme north-west was attached to the Russian Protectorate and in 1944 to the USSR, today it is part of the Russian Federation as the Republic of Tuva.
In 1939, the Red Army soldiers, together with the Mongolian cavalry, succeeded in stopping the Japanese advance in Asia at the Battle of Chalchyn gol. Decades of Stalinist terror and political persecution followed, the Lamaist religion was systematically suppressed. In 1960 the People’s Republic of Mongolia adopted a new constitution as a socialist state and became a member of the Comecon. The 60s and 70s brought social progress, for example, illiteracy was largely overcome and food supplies improved.
In 1990, after a large number of the Soviet troops were withdrawn from Mongolia as part of the perestroika movement, the Communist government abdicated. The one-party system was abolished and a peaceful process of democratization began. At the same time, the market economy was introduced. After the first free elections in 1990, a constitution based on the rule of law was introduced and democratic parties were admitted. The People’s Republic of Mongolia was renamed the Republic of Mongolia. The ruling Communist Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MRVP) again became the strongest party in 1994 in democratic elections. The following year Otschirbat received the candidate of the two major opposition parties MNPD (Mongolian National Democratic Party) and MSDP (Mongolian Social Democratic Party) received the most votes and was elected President. In 1996 the MRVP was defeated in the parliamentary elections and the opposition took over parliamentary power for the first time.
In 1997, a candidate from the MRVP (Bagabandi) was re-elected as the new President of Mongolia. The former opposition (MNPD and MSDP) lost considerable support among the population within just one year. In 1999, Rinchinnyamin Amarjargal (MNPD) followed as Prime Minister. In the parliamentary elections in 2000 the following year, the communists won with a landslide victory. Nambariin Enkhbayar (MRVP) became the new head of government. In the 2004 elections, the Communists were given 36 out of 76 seats, as many as the National Democratic Party, United Traditional Party and Social Democratic Party (MDP). Tsachiagiin Elbegdordsch of the Democratic Party took his oath of office as head of government in August 2004. He had held the office from July 1996 to April 1998. In January 2006 Elbegdordsch was replaced as head of government by the party leader of the Communists, Mijeegombyn Enchbold. Former head of government Nambariin Enkhbayar (MRVP) was elected president in June 2005.
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After months of criticism, Prime Minister Enchbold had to resign from the Communist party leadership in late 2007. He was replaced by the Secretary General of the MRVP, Sandschaagiin Bajar, who eventually replaced Enchbold as head of government. Starting from the MRVP faction, the government of the “Grand Coalition” was abandoned. The newly formed government mainly includes ministers from the MRVP, but also from the motherland party and the civil courage party. The Revolutionary People’s Party MRVP was again victorious in the parliamentary elections in June 2008: it won 39 out of 76 seats, the opposition Democratic Party MDP 25 seats.President Enkhbayar had to impose a four-day state of emergency two weeks after the elections because of serious riots during the evaluation of the recount.
Finally, the MRVP and DP formed a coalition government. Former Prime Minister Tsachiagiin Elbegdordsch of the Democratic Party won the 2009 presidential election. In 2010 the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party renamed the Mongolian People’s Party. A group of renegade members had the MRVP registered as a party in 2011. Enkhbayar became chairman. In January 2012, DP ministers announced their withdrawal from government in the face of upcoming parliamentary elections. In June 2012, the DP won 31 of the 76 MPs in these elections. The MVP had 25 mandates. The justice alliance led by the newly registered MRVP received eleven seats. In August 2012, the new head of government was Norovyn Altankhuyag, DP leader.He formed a coalition from DP, Justice Alliance and the Mongolian Party of Civil Courage / Green Party. Prior to the formation of the government, Enkhbayar was sentenced to four years in prison for corruption. The new government has initiated the reform of numerous areas of law – such as investment, justice, taxes, parties. It will also be important for the future of Mongolia to appropriately use the country’s wealth of raw materials.